7. Running slapd

slapd(8) is designed to be run as a standalone service. This allows the server to take advantage of caching, manage concurrency issues with underlying databases, and conserve system resources. Running from inetd(8) is NOT an option.


7.1. Command-Line Options

slapd(8) supports a number of command-line options as detailed in the manual page. This section details a few commonly used options.

        -f <filename>

This option specifies an alternate configuration file for slapd. The default is normally /usr/local/etc/openldap/slapd.conf.

        -h <URLs>

This option specifies alternative listener configurations. The default is ldap:/// which implies LDAP over TCP on all interfaces on the default LDAP port 389. You can specify specific host-port pairs or other protocol schemes (such as ldaps:// or ldapi://). For example, -h "ldaps:// ldap://127.0.0.1:666" will create two listeners: one for the (non-standard) ldaps:// scheme on all interfaces on the default ldaps:// port 636, and one for the standard ldap:// scheme on the localhost (loopback) interface on port 666. Hosts may be specified using using hostnames or IPv4 or IPv6 addresses. Port values must be numeric.

        -n <service-name>

This option specifies the service name used for logging and other purposes. The default service name is slapd.

        -l <syslog-local-user>

This option specifies the local user for the syslog(8) facility. Values can be LOCAL0, LOCAL1, LOCAL2, ..., and LOCAL7. The default is LOCAL4. This option may not be supported on all systems.

        -u user -g group

These options specify the user and group, respectively, to run as. user can be either a user name or uid. group can be either a group name or gid.

        -r directory

This option specifies a run-time directory. slapd will chroot(2) to this directory after opening listeners but before reading any configuration files or initializing any backends.

        -d <level> | ?

This option sets the slapd debug level to <level>. When level is a `?' character, the various debugging levels are printed and slapd exits, regardless of any other options you give it. Current debugging levels are

Table 7.1: Debugging Levels
Level Description
-1 enable all debugging
0 no debugging
1 trace function calls
2 debug packet handling
4 heavy trace debugging
8 connection management
16 print out packets sent and received
32 search filter processing
64 configuration file processing
128 access control list processing
256 stats log connections/operations/results
512 stats log entries sent
1024 print communication with shell backends
2048 print entry parsing debugging

You may enable multiple levels by specifying the debug option once for each desired level. Or, since debugging levels are additive, you can do the math yourself. That is, if you want to trace function calls and watch the config file being processed, you could set level to the sum of those two levels (in this case, -d 65). Or, you can let slapd do the math, (e.g. -d 1 -d 64). Consult <ldap_log.h> for more details.


Note: slapd must have been compiled with -DLDAP_DEBUG defined for any debugging information beyond the two stats levels to be available.


7.2. Starting slapd

In general, slapd is run like this:

        /usr/local/libexec/slapd [<option>]*

where /usr/local/libexec is determined by configure and <option> is one of the options described above (or in slapd(8)). Unless you have specified a debugging level (including level 0), slapd will automatically fork and detach itself from its controlling terminal and run in the background.


7.3. Stopping slapd

To kill off slapd(8) safely, you should give a command like this

        kill -INT `cat /usr/local/var/slapd.pid`

where /usr/local/var is determined by configure.

Killing slapd by a more drastic method may cause information loss or database corruption.